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Northwestern University 



MARCH, 18 95 

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The Northwestern University Record 

Vol. II MARCH, 1895 No. 1 

Northwestern University Record is issued by the authority of the Board of Trustees of the University. It is meant to be 
a means of communication between the University as a whole and its Alumni and the public It will contain matter upon the history 
and development of the University, thr changes in the courses of study, the general commencement of the University and the com- 
mencements of the special schools, the action of the Trustees at their general meeting, any and all matters of interest to the alumni, 
and any subjects upon which public attention is fixed. It hopes in this way to foster a real university spirit among the alumni 
and friends of the University and among the students of the different special schools. The interests of any one member of the 
University is the interest of all ; and it is to make this fact increasingly felt that the Record is established and continued. It solicits 
and will welcome the co-operation and suggestion of all the members, alumni and friends of the University. 

Northwestern University Record, the official organ of the University, is published 
quarterly, under the editorship of a joint committee of the several faculties. 

General Editor and Chairman, PROF. W. CALDWELL, M.A., D. Sc. 

Prof. A. R. Crook, Ph. D., College of Liberal Arts. Prof J. H. Long, M.S., D. Sc, School of Pharmacy. 

Prof. N S. Davis, Jr., M.A., M.D.. Medical School. Prof. Edmund Noyes., D.D.S , Dental School. 

Prof. J. H. Wigmore, A.M., LL. B., Law School. Dr. L. L. Skelton, Women's Medical School. 




















All communications, subscriptions and inquiries should be addressed to 

Entered at the Post office in Chicago, Illinois, Professor W. Calpwell, Evanston, Illinois. 

as second-class mail matter. ' iviiomi ^*±w , 7 

Northwestern University Record 

Volume II 

MARCH, i8g 5 

Number I 


The chapter which the present year can add 
to the story of the phenomenal growth of our 
University in the last four or five years is a 
striking one. 

The University this year enrolls the largest 
number of students in its history. In the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts the graduate students in 
residence, as well as the undergraduate students, 
are in excess of any previous year. The Law 
School has made a great gain in numbers, and 
the Pharmacy and Dental Schools are larger 
than in any previous year. The Medical 
Schools have more than held their own in 
numbers, and this in spite of their adoption of 
a four years' course. The non-degree confer- 
ring departments have all enrolled a larger 
number than last year. To meet the needs of 
the increased numbers and the demand for ad- 
vanced courses new chairs have been created 
and new courses offered. 

The Chair of Zoology has been established 
in the College of Liberal Arts, and Professor 
Edward G. Conklin, Ph. D., a man of rare at- 
tainments and high reputation, was called to fill 
it. The Chair of Ethics and Social Philosophy 
was also created, and Professor William Cald- 
well, M.A., D. Sc, was called to occupy it. 
Dr. Caldwell has a distinguished record as a. 
student, as well as a lecturer on philosophical 
and social subjects. The N. S. Davis Profes- 
sorship of Physiology has been established in 
the Medical School, and is referred to at length 
in the columns devoted to that school. 

No better evidence of the healthy growth of 
the University can be found than in the en- 
largement of the corps of instructors, the broad- 
ening of the courses of instruction, and the in- 
creased attendance of students. The table be- 
low gives the statistics of the College of Lib- 
eral Arts along these lines, for the last five 
years : 

Number of Instructors 

Number of Courses open to 


Number of Graduates 

Number of Undergraduates. . 

Master's Degree 

Bachelor's Degree 

90-91 91-92 92-93 93-^4 94-95 
















1 1 


I2 3 



Old students will note with special interest 
the growth of the graduate work and the in- 
creased opportunities offered to undergraduates. 
Of the thirty-three graduates now registered 
twenty-six are resident workers. The total of 
degrees conferred in 1895 cannot, as a matter 
of course, be known until commencement day, 
but it will exceed that of any previous year. 
The increase in number of undergraduates in 
i894-'95 over that of i890-'9i is 197, or 63 per 
cent., while the increase in the number of in- 
structors for the same period is 185 per cent., 
and in the number of courses of study open to 
undergraduates 151 per cent. 

The opening of the Orrington Lunt Library 
on September 26th was an event of great in- 
terest and significance to the University. The 
lack of sufficient and suitable reading and book 
rooms had been long felt, and the spacious and 
complete library building became at once 
the heart and center of University work. Mr. 
Orrington Lunt, the chief donor of the build- 
ing, and the honored man after whom it is 
named, made the presentation speech at the 
formal opening and dedication of the building. 
President Rogers in fitting words accepted the 
gift on behalf of the University. President 
Adams of the University of Wisconsin con- 
veyed the congratulations of sister universities. 
A brief reminiscent address followed by Judge 
Horace Lunt, son of the donor, a graduate of 
the University, and one of the early assistant 
librarians. An original ode by Mrs. Emily 
Huntington Miller closed the afternoon. In 



the evening a notable address was given by 
Justin Windsor, LL. D., Librarian of Harvard 
University. Fine music was rendered during 
the afternoon and evening by Mr. Karleton 
Ilackett, soloist, and the choir of St. James 
church, Chicago. Presidents Adams, Harper, 
Coulter and Finlev were present for the dedi- 
cation, and a large number of interested guests. 
The new library building is beautiful and ar- 
tistic and is equipped with every convenience 
for making the books available and the read- 
er's comfort assured. An immediate and spe- 
cific need of the University is larger funds to 
fill the waiting shelves of this treasure house of 
books. No gift would be more appreciated 
than well selected books or funds to purchase 
the same. 

Through the generous endowment of Mr. 
William Deering the department of Physiology 
in the Medical School has been equipped and 
stands among the foremost of its kind in the 
country. Dr. Winfield S. Hall, Ph. D., M. D., 
has been elected to the Davis professorship of 
Physiology and will assume his duties in the 
fall of 1895. 

Mrs. P. S. Hayes recently donated to the 
Medical School a complete equipment for an 
electro-therapeutic room, to be in memory of 
her husband, who was a professor in the 
School. The equipment is valued at $1,000, 
and will be of very great value to the depart- 
ment for the use of which it is intended. Dr. 
Schmidt has been appointed instructor in prac- 
tical medicine, Dr. Lodor instructor in Clinical 
Neurology, Dr. Allport lecturer on Descriptive 
Anatomy. Other appointments are Dr. Abb, 
Dr. Edwardp and Dr. Webster. Fourteen 
medical men of high standing and large prac- 
tice have been added to the force of assistants 
in the Clinical department. With increased 
facilities and teaching force for investigation 
and for instruction, the outlook was never more 
encouraging for the Medical School. 

The Woman's Medical School has raised its 
standard by making its regular course one of 
four years. It has maintained its usual num- 
bers and the excellence and thoroughness of its 
work. The Pharmacy School has recently 
graduated its midwinter class numbering thirty- 
seven students. The present spring class is the 

largest the School has ever had. The Phar- 
maceutical Journal of Great Britain in a recent 
issue commends Northwestern University 
School of Pharmacy heartily for the high stand- 
ard set for pharmaceutical education by its fac- 
ulty. The Dental School since its reorganiza- 
tion has increased rapidly in numbers and has 
already outgrown its new quarters. 

The Law School added to its faculty this 
year Mr. E. B. Smith of the Chicago bar. The 
standard of the School is very high and its ex- 
cellent work commands respect and has won it 
an enviable reputation as one of the strongest 
schools in the country. 

The growth of true University work is evi- 
denced in the increased popularity of the semi- 
nars. A large number of the senior class as 
well as graduate students are doing seminar 
work this year than ever before. This work 
is now well organized in nearly every depart- 
ment, and special rooms have been assigned to 
most of the seminar classes. 

Several new literary and scientific associa- 
tions have been organized in the College of 
Liberal Arts this year for the purpose of con- 
ference, investigation and advanced study. An 
Historical Association and a Philosophical Club 
were organized early in the year. A Biology 
Club and a Greek Club have recently been 
added to the valuable list of University associa- 
tions which supplement the work of the class 
and lecture room. 

The following new courses are offered this 
year : 

In Botany, two courses ; one in general 
Morphology and Physiology ; the other in the 
form of a journal club devoted to the discussion 
of important current botanical literature. 

In English, one course; a seminary in the 
Analysis of English Style, open to graduates 
and undergraduates taking advanced major- 
work in the department of English. 

In French, one course ; for graduates and 
advanced undergraduates who have completed 
their major work in the French department, 
upon French literature of ninth to fourteenth 

In German, one course ; Scientific German, 
intended for those whose major work is in the 



natural and mathematical sciences, political 
economy, sociology or philosophy. 

In Greek, one course ; History of Greek Art, 
discussed in lectures, recitations, and papers 
prepared by members of the class. 

In Mathematics, six courses ; three for under- 
graduates, upon Algebraic Series, Advanced 
Calculus, and Analytical Mechanics ; three 
primarily for graduates and devoted to Modern 
Algebra, the Theory of Functions and the 
Curve Theory, to Modern Synthetic Geometry 
and to Theory of Substitution Groups. 

In Mineralogy, two courses ; one on Projec- 
tion and Measurement of Crystals together 
with special investigations of rock-forming 
minerals, primarily for graduates ; the other on 
Economic Geology suited to accompany the 
undergraduate course in Dynamical and His- 
torical Geology. 

In Moral and Social Philosophy, four courses ; 
one for undergraduates upon the Phenomena 
of the Moral Consciousness and the Problems 
of Ethical Science ; another upon the Principles 
of Theoretical and Practical Sociology ; a third, 
a seminary in Sociology ; and a fourth, a semi- 
nary in Ethical Philosophy. 

In Music, three courses ; on Double Point, 
Canon, and Fugue ; on Free Composition and 
Instrumentation ; on Musical History. 

In Physics, two courses ; one on Heat, Elec- 
tricity and Magnetism ; the other on Problems 
in Physics ; both for undergraduates. 

In Zoology, four courses ; on Studies in Or- 
ganic Evolution ; on Studies in Heredity ; a 
Morphological seminary and research course 
primarily for graduates, and a journal club de- 
voted to the discussion of current Biological 

With the coming of Dr. Conklin to occupy 
the Chair of Zoology, it was necessary to pro- 
vide ampler accommodations for the biological 
department, and the rooms formerly occupied 
by the library have been fitted up as a zoologi- 
cal laboratory, at a cost of about $3,500. Books 
and periodicals to the value of $500 have been 
purchased this year for the same department, 
and the increased numbers and enthusiasm in 
the work of the department attest the value of 
the added teaching force and the new equip- 
ment. The entire fourth floor of University 

Hall is now given up to the Museum, but is in- 
adequate, and a large part of the valuable col- 
lection is stored for lack of space in which to 
properly exhibit it. A most pressing need of 
the University is this one for a Museum build- 
ing. A building on the campus to be devoted 
to the work in elocution and oratory is nearing 
completion and will be an ornament to the 
grounds. The campus has been greatly im- 
proved by the laying-out of new drives, the re- 
moval of the fences and the laying of a fine 
stone walk along the front of the south campus. 


It is somewhat difficult to make a selection 
of items from the business records of the Trus- 
tees of the University, where all the proceed- 
ings are really of vital interest to all interested 
in the affairs of the institution. But by way of 
such a presentation it is to be noted that at the 
meeting of the Trustees held June 12th, there 
were present in that body Mr. James H. Ray- 
mond, Mr. James Frake, Rev. Dr. Patten, 
Rev. Dr. Spencer, Rev. Dr. Haney, Dr. N. S. 
Davis, Jr., and Hon. Lorin Collins. There 
was then a very strong representation of the 
alumni of the institution at the meeting. From 
such a body a progressive and at the same time 
a conservative policy might rightly be ex- 

The annual meeting is occupied to a large 
extent with reports from the President of the 
University, from the Treasurer and the Deans 
of the vorious professional schools. These re- 
ports usually suggest the line of business to be 
followed by the Trustees. 

It might be well to note that the Treasurer's 
report indicated business passing through his 
office, that, expressed in figures, covers the 
amount of $666,754.91 for the year ending May 
1st, 1894. 

Report was made to the Trustees by the 
Secretary of the gift of Mr. William Deering 
of $50,000 to the University for the endow- 
ment of the Davis Chair of the Medical 
School, and appropriate resolutions were offered 
recognizing Mr. Deering's beneficence. 

A report was received from the alumni con- 
taining nominations from their body to vacan- 



cies in the Board of Trustees, Mr. James 
Frake, Mr. F. E. Tyler, Rev. Frank M. Bris- 
tol, Dr. Marie Mergler, Dr. George W. Web- 
ster and Mr. H. A. Cooper receiving strong 
endorsements from the alumni. From this list 
it may be stated that Rev. Dr. Bristol was 
elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resig- 
nation of Bishop S. M. Merrill. 

As to the various committees which are usu- 
ally appointed to consider the various depart- 
ments of University work, it is to be noted that 
Messrs. Raymond and Patten were appointed 
on the Committee of College of Liberal Arts ; 
judge Collins on the Committee of Law; Dr. 
N. S. Davis, Jr., on the Committee of School 
of Pharmacy ; Mr. James Frake on the Com- 
mittee of Dental School ; Messrs. Raymond 
and Patten on Committee of Conservatory of 
Music ; J. W. Haney on Committee of Aca- 
demy ; James Frake on Committee of Library 
and Museum ; James H. Raymond on Com- 
mittee of Real Estate ; Judge Collins on Com- 
mittee of Nominations of Trustees and Officers, 
and Miss Willard on Committee of University 
Dormitories, so that the hand of the Alumni is 
apparently felt in all of these departments of 
the University work. 

In the report of the Chairman of the Board 
of Auditors a recommendation was made that 
the fiscal year be changed so as to close with 
the 31st of August instead of the 30th of April, 
thus making the fiscal and scholastic year co- 
terminous. This change will make it possible 
to isolate each year's affairs" so that its work 
can be better estimated. 

The needs of the Christian Association of 
the University were emphasized in a petition 
for special rooms for their meetings and work. 
It was referred back to the Executive Com- 
mittee, which is unable, at this present time, to 
relieve the Association. One of the great 
needs of our University is an Association 
Building in which to carry on its religious 

The report of the Committee on the Acad- 
emy, which was adopted, was as follows : 
The Committee on the Academy recognize 
the great value of the Preparatory School as a 
feeder of the College of Liberal Arts, and find- 
ing the present accommodation inadequate, 
would recommend the erection, as soon as pos- 

sible, of a building which will form a part of a 
new academy when the University has funds to 
build one. 

The building need not be expensive, as there 
would be no elaborate fronts. It might contain 
a chapel and several recitation rooms, and could 
be placed east and a little back of the present 
school building, where we think there is plenty 
of room. 

While no appropriation was made or any 
steps taken to realize this recommendation, Dr. 
Fisk was allowed to roam at large to see if he 
might not find friends who would accomplish 
this much needed improvement. The old Pre- 
paratory building has been outgrown. It ought 
to remain as a pleasant reminder of its useful- 
ness in the past. It was the home of the Uni- 
versity when it was on Davis street, and later 
the scholastic home of thousands of students. 

To the Alumni of the University from the 
Professional Schools it is of special interest to 
note that the Trustees directed that the name of 
Davis Hall should be transferred from the 
Clinical building to the Laboratory building in 
honor of the Dean of the Medical School. 


The simple and harmonious design of the 
Library building is noticed by even the most 
indifferent passer-by. The style of the build- 
ing is adopted from the Italian rennaisance, 
and its classic details are in harmony with the 
refinements of literature and art. 

A special point kept in view by the architect, 
Mr. W. A. Otis, was the possibility of small 
additions, in such a manner as not to injure the 
working departments of the Library or the ex- 
ternal architectural effect. The present con- 
struction, a center pavilion and two wings, 
covers a space 70x160 feet, and is a complete 
building in itself, but is only the beginning of 
a possible extremely large Library, with a 
capacity of a million volumes. What is known 
as the slow-burning construction was used in 
its construction, thus reducing the risk by fire 
to a minimum. 

The building is of buff Bedford stone, and 
the roof of red Conasera tile. The large semi- 
circular porch, with its delicate Ionic columns 
of very beautiful proportion, is the chief artistic 



feature of the front. The main vestibule with 
its broad, classical flight of stairs, fine wain- 
scoting, mosaic floor and choice decoration form 
an artistic and appropriate entrance to the 
building. The ventilation has been carefully 
provided for. The heating is by steam, from 
a boiler house outside the building. 

The wall decorations are by Miss Ida J. 
Burgess, and, though simple, are in harmony 
with the building and cause the architecture 
and the decoration to emphasize each other. 

The reading and book rooms, with the Li- 
brarian's room, occupy the whole first floor. A 
newspaper room and a public document room 
are in the basement. On the second floor an 
assembly room, seating four hundred, is used 
at present for chapel services and occasional 
lectures. The University Guild occupies the 
large suite of rooms on the south, and has 
fitted them up at an expense of $1,000 dollars 
as a temporary home for their art collection. 
The third floor is devoted to the German de- 
partment and to seminary rooms. 

On the last Friday in October all the schools 
of the University together celebrated what is 
known by the University as "University Day." 
This time the whole affair was turned over to 
the University authorities out of the hands of 
the students of the College of Liberal Arts. 
The departments from Chicago were met at 
the depot about one o'clock by the Evanston 
students in a body. A line of march was 
formed, and those who wore caps and gowns 
marched together. About two o'clock a gen- 
eral meeting was held in the First Methodist 
church. A march was played, as the students 
entered, by Professor Lutkin. The President 
made an address of welcome, and then mem- 
bers of the different faculties gave short ad- 
dresses. A foot-ball match took place in the 
afternoon, and at six o'clock lunch was served 
to the students of the city departments in the 
Woman's Hall. Later a general reception to 
all students was held at the same place. 

ginning of the spring term. It is a beautiful 
structure, Venetian in design, and is exciting 
general commendation. The lower floor, or 
basement, is a large and well-lighted room, 
which will be used as a gymnasium. A prom- 
inent firm in Chicago has agreed to fit it up 
with all the necessary equipment for the work 
of Physical Culture. The first floor will in- 
clude an Auditorium, capable of seating three 
hundred people, which can be enlarged on spe- 
cial occasions, by throwing open the Library 
and Reception rooms, which will accommodate 
150 more. 

The Library room is 34x18 feet, and will be 
furnished with the current literature of the day. 
A large publishing house has agreed to furnish 
for the English department a working library, 
embracing all the principal authors, from 
Chaucer down to modern times. On the sec- 
ond floor will be seventeen recitation rooms, in 
which private work will be conducted. One of 
the features of this floor is the perfect system 
of deadened partitions, so that work can be 
carried on in each room without interfering 
with work in adjacent rooms. The third floor 
is similar to the second and will be used for 
private training. 

The building will be heated by steam and 
lighted by electricity. It is specially gratifying 
to friends of the University that this is the first 
building ever designed and used exclusively 
for elocutionary purposes in our country. It 
will henceforth be officially known as Annie 
May Swift Hall, in memory of the daughter of 
Gustavus F. Swift, one of the Trustees of the 
University and the chief donor to it. 


The new Hall of Oratory is nearing com- 
pletion and will be ready for occupancy the be- 

During the winter of i893-'4, certain stu- 
dents in the University of Michigan addressed 
President Rogers, asking if a joint debate be- 
tween Michigan and Northwestern universities 
might not be arranged. The letter was referred 
to the Professor of the English language for a 
reply. Later correspondence between repre- 
sentatives appointed by the student bodies of 
the two schools resulted in the formation of a 
league for the purpose of holding two joint de- 
bates during the years of i893-'4 and i894-'5 



respectively. The first debate of the two was 
held at Ann Arbor, Mich., in April 1894. By 
the terms of the compact the second or return 
debate is to be held with Northwestern at either 
Evanston or Chicago, not later than May 1st, 
1895. By mutual agreement, also, the question 
debated last year was selected by Michigan, 
and to Northwestern was left the choice of 
sides ; while this year Northwestern selects the 
question and Michigan has choice of sides. 
The question that has been selected and sub- 
mitted to Michigan is, "Should the United 
States Government Construct and Control the 
Nicaragua Canal? " The Michigan men have 
not yet declared which side they will take, nor 
have they yet selected their debaters. The men 
who are to represent Northwestern are E. P. 
Bennett, and H. W. Ward, of the Junior Class in 
the College of Liberal Arts, and H. W. Cook, 
of the Law School. Before selecting these 
men, two preliminary debates were held, one 
between ten volunteers from the College of 
Liberal Arts, for the purpose of selecting five 
men to meet representatives from our own Law 
School, and one between the men so selected 
and as many representatives from the Law 
School. After these two preliminary debates 
had been held, the student body appointed, as a 
committee with power to select the debaters 
against Michigan, President Rogers, Prof. 
Wigmore of the Law School, and Prof. Clark 
of the College of Liberal Arts. This commit- 
tee was not bound to select the three debaters 
from among those who had participated in the 
preliminary debates. These debates were held 
simply for the purpose of informing the com- 
mittee and the student body as to forensic 
ability among the students. Our men are all 
hard at work studying the question in its gen- 
eral aspects. It is not yet decided whether to 
hold the debate in Evanston or in Chicago. A 
larger audience and less expense would be in- 
sured in Evanston. On the other hand, if held 
in Chicago, the debate would attract wider pub- 
lic attention. By the terms of the agreement, 
the judges must be men who are not residents 
of either Illinois or Michigan, and who have 
had no direct relations of any kind with either 
Michigan or Northwestern universities. It is 
reported that the Michigan men are working 
to win, and a lively and interesting contest may 

be depended on. Every graduate and under- 
graduate and friend of Northwestern should 
keep the debate in mind. In these days, when 
so much of the attention of the college world is 
given to physical contests, it is surely desirable 
that intellectual contests like this joint-debate be 
loyally and royally sustained. 


The Faculty of Liberal Arts have decided 
that attendance at the Chapel service shall be 
obligatory on all students whose work closes 
at twelve o'clock, and if the number of ab- 
sences in any one term exceed one-fifth of the 
total number of Chapel services, the student 
becomes subject to discipline. 

The Chapel service is not merely a religious 
service. It affords an opportunity to the au- 
thorities of the University to meet the student 
body and to make official announcements to 

The objection that no one should be com- 
pelled against his will to attend a religious ser- 
vice cannot be properly urged against the rule 
which the Faculty have adoped, as the Chapel 
meeting is not, as above stated, merely a chapel 

The new rule goes into operation at the be- 
ginning of the third term. It has been always 
understood that students were required to go to 
chapel. But a failure to comply with the rule 
has not in recent years subjected them to dis- 
cipline. The rule now adopted is in harmony 
with the policy pursued in most of the univer- 
sities of this country, as well as at Oxford and 
Cambridge in England. 


The question of Athletics in the University 
is not less perplexing at present than it has 
been for some years past. The lack of ade- 
quate gymnasium accommodation makes the 
work of the Director exceedingly difficult, but 
much good work is being done notwithstand- 
ding. The introduction of new apparatus and 
new methods has created considerable interest, 
and many students are pursuing systematic 
courses of training. 

The chief difficulty in the situation is and 

iS 9 5-] 


has been with outdoor sports. While the base- 
hall team of last spring was phenomenally suc- 
cessful and attracted much attention to the Uni- 
versity by its long line of victories, the football 
team was proportionately unfortunate. Much 
disappointment was expressed that a team so 
well supported financially should have been so 
unsuccessful in competition. The cause is per- 
haps not far to seek. Insufficient training and 
lack of discipline might be mentioned as two of 
the prominent causes of defeat. Under the cir- 
cumstances the disbanding of the team was 
perhaps not an unmixed evil. As a result new 
teams were formed in the Law School and 
School of Pharmacy, which did ■ creditable 
work, and on the Evanston grounds much 
more enthusiastic football was played and by a 
larger number of players after the team had 
disbanded than at any time before. 

Financially, the season was abundantly suc- 
cessful. The management of the team lacked 
but a few dollars of being self-supporting, 
while the nearly $500 raised by subscription 
permitted a reduction of the indebtedness of 
the Athletic Association by about $200, and 
carries a satisfactory balance into the next sea- 
son. All sources of revenue are at present 
being made use of and it is to be hoped that 
the total indebtedness of the Association will 
soon be removed. 

As athletic sports come to be more generally 
recognized as forming a regular part of college 
work and college discipline, the necessity arises 
for bringing them more directly under the con- 
trol of college authorities. With this in view 
the Conference of College Presidents, at which 
Northwestern, Chicago, Purdue, and the State 
Universities of Illinois, Wisconsin and Minne- 
sota were represented, was called in Chicago 
during the early days of this year. At this 
conference the whole question of management 
was canvassed, and such regulations were 
agreed upon, to be submitted to the several 
faculties, as would, if faithfully carried out, 
materially aid in ridding college athletics of 
many of their disagreeable and objectionable 
features. Under these regulations the com- 
plete control of all athletic affairs is placed in 
the hands of a committee appointed by the Fac- 
ulty. None but bona Jide students who are 

successfully carrying on regular work are per- 
mitted to enter intercollegiate games of any 
kind. All paid coaches and trainers, as well as 
persons who have ever been members of pro- 
fessional teams, are excluded from contests. 
The healthful influence of such regulations 
fearlessly and impartially enforced will go far 
toward purifying the sentiment on athletic 
questions and will be felt more and more as 
years advance. 

The rules regulating athletics adopted at the 
Conference of College Presidents held at the 
Auditorium in Chicago, in January, have been 
modified by them to the extent of postponing 
the operation of rule 5, relating to professional- 
ism, one year. The rules, as thus modified by 
the presidents themselves, have been adopted 
by the Faculty of Liberal Arts — without 
change. Rule 5 will go into operation at 
Northwestern in September next. 

It is highly important that Athletics in our 
Colleges should be purged of any spirit of pro- 
fessionalism, and the probability is that addi- 
tional legislation will be required before this 
will be entirely accomplished. The idea that 
Athletics should be left to regulate themselves, 
students being left to follow their own bent in 
the matter, is a pernicious one. The universi- 
ties are appreciating this fact, and all over the 
country they are taking the matter under fac- 
ulty control. 

The action taken by the Faculty of Liberal 
Arts in adopting the rules suggested by the 
Presidents, as well as certain additional rules, 
will work a most desirable reform in the ath- 
letic matters of this University. 

The Faculty, as well as the Presidents, call 
for a revision of the rules of foot-ball. So good 
a game should not be abolished unless it is 
shown that it cannot be reformed. 


The University Guild, organized two years 
ago among the women of Evanston, who are 
especially interested in the University, has 
grown in numbers and influence steadily. Dur- 
ing the World's Fair a small but choice and 
valuable collection of porcelains, pottery and 
other pieces of art and value was made by 
members of the Guild, a fund being raised for 




the purpose. This forms the nucleus of what 
it is intended will he an art collection for the 
University. The Guild, since its occupancy of 
the fine rooms assigned it in the Library build- 
ing, is enabled to assist in the social life of the 
University. It also endeavors to keep its large 
membership in touch with true University 
work by frequently having the work of the 
various departments presented by the profer- 
sors at its regular meetings. 

The University Guild, Chicago chapter, was 
organized one year ago under the auspices of 
the University, and as a social and literary 
club for the members of the University facul- 
ties and others interested in science, literature 
and art. It has its headquarters in the Law 
School, Masonic Temple, Chicago, where it 
meets fortnightly to listen to able papers and 
discussions and enjoy a social hour. It has a 
membership of about two hundred, and its suc- 
cess seems assured. 


The Museum of the College now occupies 
the whole of the upper floor of University Hall. 
The Society rooms and the central hall have 
been given up to the Museum. The panels in 
all the doors of the rooms have been replaced 
by glass so that the whole floor (90x70) is es- 
sentially one large room ; and yet the space is 
conveniently separated into systematic sections. 
There is a section of Zoology ; a section of Bo- 
tany ; a section of Mineralogy ; a section of 
Geology ; and a section of Anthropology. The 
purpose is to have a special curator for each 
section. Wm. A. Phillips, M.D., '83, has 
charge of the section of Anthropology. Those 
who saw his exhibit at the Columbian Exposi- 
tion, will recognize the excellence of his work. 
He has furnished for the section, at his own 
expense, 150 square feet of table cases and is at 
work arranging and studying the material. 

The Professor of Botany has done much 
work in his section. Since the last issue of the 
Record, more than 500 mounted specimens 
and skins of birds and mammals of Illinois 
have been received. Our lists contain all the 
birds and mammals known to occur in the state 
except a few rare ones. The material in the 

Museum is now much more abundant than the 
room to exhibit it. No section has sufficient 
room for a systematic arrangement. A Mus- 
eum building is a most pressing need of the 


The Alumni of Garrett Biblical Institute at 
their annual meeting in May, will unveil a brass 
tablet mounted on marble, in memory of the 
late Rev. Charles W. Bennett, D.D., LL.D. 
The oration will be pronounced by Dr. W. H. 
Crawford, President of Allegheny College, 
Class of 1884. The tablet is being made by a 
New York firm and will be mounted in the 
chapel of Memorial Hall. 

One year ago the Garrett Alumni, at the 
suggestion of Dr. Ridgeway, held a mid-year 
meeting in Chicago of those members residing 
within easy reach of the city. They met at 
the Y. M. C. A. building after the Methodist 
Preachers' meeting and lunched together. Then 
the afternoon was spent in considering the in- 
terests of Alma Mater. The affair was so en- 
joyable and profitable that another mid-year 
meeting was held this year at the same place 
on the last Monday of February. Faculty, 
Trustees and friends were invited, and the meet- 
ing was a pronounced success. 

In 1890 the Alumni of G. B. I. began to set 
apart a portion of annual membership dues as 
an Alumni Library Fund. In four years it has 
amounted to $385.83, which has been used in 
behalf of the library. The books purchased 
by this fund are duly marked as credited to the 
Alumni Fund. As the years pass it is expected 
this fund will increase, and be a constant source 
of supply for the library. 


The attendance in the fall term was 480, an 
advance of twelve per cent over last year. 
The number of students completing their pre- 
paration for college in June next is about one 
hundred. The number of young men studying 
for the Christian ministry is more than eighty. 

A canvass for subscriptions for a new build- 
ing has been authorized, -and some pledges have 
been taken, conditional upon the erection of a 

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building to cost not less than $50,000. It is 
hoped that the response to solicitations will be 
sufficiently numerous and liberal and prompt to 
warrant the Trustees in proceeding soon with 
the erection of a building that will amply pro- 
vide for all the needs of the school. Such a 
building, it is thought, would cost about 


There will be a meeting on March 29th at 
Evanston of Presidents Rogers, Angell, Ad- 
ams, and Harper with the principals of many 
high schools and academies for the purpose of 
organizing an association of colleges and sec- 
ondary schools of the north central states. It 
has been felt that something should be done to 
make the requirements for entrance to college 
more uniform, and that the courses of instruc- 
tion of the different accredited schools should 
be more adapted to college requirements. An 
outcome of this meeting may be that steps 
will be taken towards a co-operation with the 
New England and Middle States Associations 
for the same purpose. 

Mr. William Bodemann and Mr. T. H. Pat- 
terson were elected members of the Executive 
Committee of the School of Pharmacy. 

The Rev. Edmund B. Paterson, of Lansing, 
Mich., has been elected Trustee of the Univer- 
sity by the Michigan Conference in place of 
the Rev. Levi Master. 

Mr. Otto W. Miller has been appointed dir- 
ector of the gymnasium in place of Mr. Philip 
Greiner, resigned. 

The Review of Reviews for November had 
a neat cut of President Henry Wade Rogers 
and a sketch of his personality in connection 
with an article on the Leaders in Legal Educa- 

A recent number of the Pharmaceutical 
Journal and Transactions, the organ of the 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, con- 
ferred high praise on the School of Pharmacy 
of the University for the high standard set for 
pharmaceutical education by its faculty. 

The Commencement Address this year will 
be given by Dr. Lyman Abbott, of Brooklyn, 
the successor of Henry Ward Beecher, and the 

editor of the Outlook, formerly known as the 
Christian Union. 

President Rogers was one of the speakers 
at the Civil Service Reform Association held 
in Chicago recently at the Sunset Club, Dec. 
20th, on the Public School question ; and at the 
meeting in commemoration of the World's 
Congress (Auditorium, Jan. 1st.,) on the "Re- 
lation of Higher Education to Good Govern- 

The Alumni of Northwestern University 
will be addressed by Gov. McKinley, of Ohio, 
next June. The address will be given on the 
afternoon of Commencement Day in the First 
Methodist Church in Evanston. It may be 
naturally hoped that this address will bring to- 
gether a greater number of alumni than have 
perhaps come together at commencements 

John A. Walz, A.B., 1892, is pursuing grad- 
uate work in Germanics and English at Har- 
vard Universisy, as a candidate for the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy. 

John A. Scott, A.B., 1891, is a graduate stu- 
dent in Greek, Latin and Sanskrit at Johns 
Hopkins University, and has recently been 
awarded the Hopkins scholarship in Greek. 

Miss Anna Maude Bowen, Ph.B., 1894, is a 
graduate student of Cornell University, pur- 
suing courses in German and English phil- 

The student who was selected by the Faculty 
to represent the University on Washington's 
Birthday, under the auspices of the Union 
League Club of Chicago, is Mr. Herbert E. 
Page, a senior in the Law School. 

Mr. Wirt E. Humphrey, class of '90, C. L. 
A., has been elected to the office of U. S. Com- 
missioner at Chicago in succession to Mr. P. A. 

The Committee on Athletics for the year 
1894-95 consists of Professors Holgate, Shep- 
pard, and Gray, and Dr. M. C. Bragdon, W. 
A. Hamilton, and P. R. Shumway. 

Governor Evans has presented to the Uni- 
versity a marble bust of himself which is being 
placed in the Orrington Lunt Library. He was 




President of the Board of Trustees from 185 1 
until June, 1894, when Mr. Orrington Lunt 
became President of the Board. 

Several members of Northwestern's faculty 
accepted an invitation to be present on the 
platform of the Auditorium at the Winter 
Commencement of the Chicago University. 
President Seth Lowe of Columbia College, 
talked upon the relation of the University to 
problems of citizenship. 

The Rev. Dr. Henry B. Ridgaway, Presi- 
dent of the Garrett Biblical Institute, has been 
relieved from active service since the beginning 
of the Scholastic year on account of impaired 
health. He spent several months in Clifton 
Springs, Philadelphia and New York, under 
treatment by eminent medical specialists. He 
returned to his home early in February in a 
condition which causes much apprehension 
With the earnest hopes for his recovery, cher- 
ished by a wide circle of friends, the Univer- 
sity, in which he has ever manifested the most 
cordial interest, is in hearty sympathy. 

The Board of Trustees at the June meeting 
established a rule making the cap and gown 
the academic dress to be worn on cere- 
monial occasions. It thus becomes necessary 
for students in all degree conferring depart- 
ments to wear that dress at Commencement. 
It is not necessary that students in the profes- 
sional schools in the city should wear the cap 
and gown except at Commencement. The 
better plan for such students is probably to rent 
rather than to purchase this dress as they oc- 
casion to make but little use of it. With the 
students in the College of Liberal Arts the 
case is different. They have more opportuni- 
ties for making use of such a dress. On such 
occasions as Commencement, University Day, 
at the University sermons, and in the class- 
room, the cap and gown may be worn by them 
with entire propriety. This dress has much to 
commend it as being in accord with academic 
traditions and as being a saving of expense. 
Students should feel honored in wearing it, 
and if the practice of wearing it becomes gene- 
ral on the part of the student body it ought to 
tend somewhat toward the creation of desirable 
esprit de corps. As students in the Academy, 

in the Department of Music, and in the School 
Of Oratory are not to wear it, it serves as a 
badge of distinction. 



William Frederick Poole, one of the Trust- 
ees of Northwestern University, was born in 
Salem, Mass., December 24, 1821. He came of 
good old English stock, and his ancestors came 
to this country in 1635. 

Like many New England lads, he tried his 
hand at various crafts, and finally made up his 
mind to go to college, and prepared at Litchfield 
Academy. It took him seven years to go 
through Yale. He entered with the class of 
1842 and graduated in 1849. He had to work 
his way through and spent three of these seven 
years in teaching school to get money for his 
expenses. On his return to school, in 1846, he 
secured work in the library, and this determined 
his future profession. The story of his "In- 
dex" is so well known that it is needless to re- 
peat it here. It gained him a reputation every- 
where. After his graduation he went to Bos- 
ton, where he was first assistant in the Boston 
Athenaeum at the "magnificent salary of $500'' 
as he expressed it. 

After a year in the Boston Mercantile Li- 
brary he went back to the Athenaeum, where 
he remained thirteen years. After a year spent 
as library expert in organizing several libraries 
and a few years in Cincinnati, he came to Chi- 
cago, in 1873. His career since then has been 
well known to all. 

Northwestern University honored him with 
LL. B., in 1882, and, in 1891, honored herself 
as well as him by electing him as one of her 
Trustees. His career was that of a master of 
organization, of a man of business as well as a 
scholar and withal a man of literary tastes. 

Dr. Poole elevated the library business into 
the dignity of a great profession. Upon going 
to Boston he was thrown into contact with 
many leading literary men. The Boston Ath- 
enaeum has always been the workshop and 
meeting-place of many of Boston's most dis- 
tinguished men. Here he met Longfellow, 
Holmes, Lowell and others, and formed friend- 



J 3 

ships which continued to later years. Although 
his own particular bent was history, he did not 
neglect literature proper. He edited, in 1874- 
1875, The Owl, and has been a constant con- 
tributor to the columns of The Dial. He be- 
lieved in a liberal education in the widest sense, 
and would have each college equipped with a 
good library and a chair of bibliography. This 
was one of his pet theories and none of us will 
forget his masterly appeal for such things in 
his Phi Beta Kappa oration of 1893. Hebelieved 
that the public library was as much a part of the 
school system as is the public school, and that 
the two were but parts of one organism. 

He was deeply interested in University ex- 
tension and was instrumental in organizing the 
Chicago Society and was first President of the 
Newberry Library Centre. He regarded his 
famous "Index" as a great disseminator of 
knowledge previously locked up in sets of peri- 
odicals. As a man of affairs, as an organizer, 
he was perhaps unexcelled. He had, too, a 
great knowledge of human character and of 
men. He was at once courteous and sincere 
and firm, and rarely failed to gain his point. It 
will be remembered that over his door in the 
Chicago Public Library rooms on Randolph 
street he had inscribed the words, "Be short." 
Dilettanti and merely curious readers he could 
not abide, but for the genuine student he did 
everything. Libraries in more than one city 
attest his sagacious foresight, his profound 
knowledge of bibliography and his shrewd 
New England common sense. Our own beau- 
tiful Orrington Lunt Library building owes 
much of its beauty and utility to his wise coun- 

We must close with a few personal touches. 
Nature had been generous to him and given 
him a superb physique. Fully six feet tall and 
well proportioned, he enjoyed perfect health 
and had no organic or systemic trouble of any 
kind. At the age of seventy his face was still 
illumined by his large, brown eyes, clear and 
strong to the day of his death. He was seen at 
his best when freed from his routine cares and 
off on a long railway trip, such as he frequently 
made to attend the meetings of the American 
Library Association. He was full of jest and 
repartee. He was a good talker and a good 
listener. He was always fond of meetinig 

his old pupils, as he called them, and always 
prided himself on the fact that he taught library 
work. As a solace, when the day was rainy, 
or the scenery poor, he always had at hand a 
well-thumbed copy of Horace, whom, scholar- 
like, he always read in the original. His re- 
turn to Horace in his later years is significant 
of the man. He has "gone to the majority," and 
we say : " Hail and Farewell !" 


By the death of David Swing Chicago lost 
her most distinguished preacher and her most 
interesting man of letters. Although he was 
born in Ohio, was educated in Miami Univer- 
sity and Lane Seminary, and acquired the title 
of professor by twelve years' teaching in his 
alma mater, yet he first came to fame in Chi- 
cago, and for nearly thirty years was fully 
identified with his adopted city. Central Music 
Hall, built to supply him a pulpit after his sep- 
aration from the Presbyterian Church, con- 
tained every Sunday a large congregation note- 
worthy for the wealth and intellect of its regu- 
lar members and the number of interested visi- 
tors. Professor Swing's personal appearance 
was striking. His features were strongly 
marked and indicated great sensitiveness as 
well as unusual force. His voice was sympa- 
thetic and his delivery rapid and characterized 
by a singular cadence. His peculiarities, how- 
ever, were so manifestly the expression of a 
unique personality, that they raised no suspicion 
of affectation and only added another charm to 
his utterances. His sermons were marked by 
broad sympathy, profound though somewhat 
vague religious convictions and poetic imagina- 
tion. It is difficult to define his theological po- 
sition. He often seemed too liberal to be called 
evangelical, but quite as often too evangelical to 
be classed with the liberals. It was not his na- 
ture to define or dogmatize. But his love of 
God as revealed in Jesus Christ and his love of 
his fellow-men were continually manifested 
both in his words and his life. His essays ex- 
hibited the same traits as his sermons, but in 
these there was a freer field for the display of 
his poetic fancy and genial humor. Everywhere 
in his writings one sees his love of all things 
beautiful and good, his undaunted optimism and 




his broad and deep sympathy. Truly charac- 
teristic are the last words written by his pen, 
the final sentence of an unfinished sermon : 
"We have much to hope for from the gradual 
increase of brotherly love." To that blessed 
increase few in our generation have contributed 
more unstintedly than David Swing. The 
Northwestern University, of which he was for 
some years a Trustee, honors and cherishes his 
memory as that of a great man and a good 


At the funeral service of Prof. Julius F. Kel- 
logg, on June 26, 1894, those of the Faculty 
who were in Evanston were present, and the 
exercises were conducted by President Rogers, 
Drs. Bristol, Raymond and Sheppard. In order 
that it might be a University ceremony, the 
memorial service was not held till November, 
when, on the 30th of the month, in the Assem- 
bly Hall of Lunt Library, an impressive service 
was held. Dr. H. F. Fisk gave the address. 

The minute passed by the Executive Com- 

mittee of the Board of Trustees at their meeting, 
October Sth, 1894, m reference to the death of 
Professor Swing, reads as follows : 

"Professor David Swing died at his home in 
Chicago on the evening of October 3d, 1894, at 
the age of sixty-four years. The University 
deeply mourns his loss. Pie became a member 
of the Board in 1889, and continued in its ser- 
vice from that time to the day of his death. It 
is pleasing to recall that his connection with it 
was a source of gratification to him and that he 
was wont to refer to the University as his acad- 
emic home. He cherished its interests and 
sought to promote its welfare. The University 
reveres his memory as one of its most honored 
servants, a most accomplished scholar, a lover 
of literature, of art, of music, and of all learn- 
ing, a friend of humanity, whose gentle heart 
sympathized with human sorrow and found its 
greatest pleasure in ministering to human need 
and in proclaiming the Fatherhood of God and 
the Brotherhood of Man. His life was full of 
noble achievements and of unselfish service to 
his generation. It is impossible not to believe 
now that he has passed behind the veil, that 
unto him has been given 

"A life that bears immortal fruit, 
In such great offices as suit 
The full-grown energies of heaven." 



The present college year has seen a number 
of additions to the teaching force of the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts. Mr. Bechtel has been 
promoted to the position of Instructor in Latin 
and now conducts all the first year's work in 
that subject. Mr. Bechtel is a graduate of 
Johns Hopkins ; did post-graduate work and 
was a Fellow in Latin at that University ; was 
Professor of Greek at Mt. Morris College 
(111.), and of Latin at Yankton College 
(S. Dak.) ; and last year was instructor in 
Latin in the Academy. 

W. S. Watson, M.S., who graduated at 
Wesleyan in '93, took the Master's degree in 
'94, was for two years Principal in Public 
Schools in Connecticut and is now instructor 
in Biology in the Academy, gives a course in 
the Department of Zoology, in which Depart- 
ment he is Instructor. 

The department of Romance Languages has 

been strengthened by the election of Miss Mary 
L. Freeman as instructor in French., Miss 
Freeman is a graduate of Vassar and was a 
post-graduate student during two years at 
Bryn Mawr. She brings to her work culture, en- 
thusiasm, a long and successful experience. 
In the Department of German the changes 
consist in the advancement of Mr. Cohn from 
Instructorship to Assistant Professorship and 
in the appointment of Charles Waldo Foreman, 
M.S., as Instructor. Mr. Foreman graduated 
at the University of Rochester in '85 and in 
'89 received the Master's degree. He served 
for two years, first as Assistant Secretary, 
then as General Secretary of the Y. M. C. A. 
After one year of teaching at La Grange (N.C.), 
he went to Ft. Edward Collegiate Institute 
(N. Y.), where he taught for five years, and 
where, during the last year, he was Vice- 
President of the Institution. The year follow- 
ing was occupied in study at Leipsig. Upon 

1 895-] 


his return, as Licentiate of Troy Presbytery, 
he spent a year preaching and lecturing. 
Among the professorships, ' besides the 
change mentioned, is the promotion of Dr. 
Holgate to the position of Professor of Applied 
Mathematics ; the division of the Department 
of Biology into the Department of Botany, 
with Prof. Atwell as Professor, and the De- 
partment of Zoology, with Dr. E. G. Conklin 
as Professor ; and lastly the appointment of 
Dr. William Caldwell to the chair of Moral 
and Social Philosophy. 

Professor Conklin was born in Ohio. He 
graduated at the Ohio Wesleyan in '85, in the 
scientific course, and the following year in the 
classical course. For three years he was a 
professor in Rust University (Miss.). In the 
fall of 1888 he entered Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity as a graduate student, choosing as his 
major subject animal morphology and as his 
subsidiary subjects animal physiology and 
paleontology. During his second year at the 
University he was appointed assistant in the 
biological laboratory and the following year 
he was made Fellow in biology. In the sum- 
mer of 1890 he occupied Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity table at the marine laboratory of the 
United States fish commission at Woods Holl, 
Mass., and the following summer he was em- 
ployed by the commission as an investigator 
at the station named. While at Johns Hop- 
kins University he published papers on the 
structure and development of the gonophores 
or sexual organs of a Siphonophore, related to 
the common " Portuguese man-of-war," and on 
the embryology of Crepidula and Vrosalpinx, 
two genera of marine gasteropods. He re- 
ceived the degree of Ph.D. from Johns Hop- 
kins University in 1 891, his thesis being a care- 
ful and exhaustive study of the embryology of 
Crepidula or the slipper limpet, as it is gener- 
ally called by visitors at the seashore. In the 
summer of 1892 Dr. Conklin was made a 
member of the corps of instructors in charge of 
investigation at the Marine Biological Labora- 
tory, Woods Holl, Mass., of which institution 
Professor C.T). Whitman, of the University 
of Chicago,' is T director. This position he has 
held ever since. His investigations of late 
have been directed to the origin and structure 

of the germ cells, the phenomena of fertiliza- 
tion and the cleavage of the ovum. There has 
recently appeared from his pen a paper on the 
"Fertilization of the Ovum and Its Bearing on 
Current Theories of Heredity," and he has in 
preparation other papers of a kindred nature, 
among which may be mentioned the following : 
" The Dynamics of Fertilization and Cleavage " 
and " A Contribution to the Cytogeny and Or- 
ganogeny of Crepidula." During the last 
three years Dr. Conklin has been Professor of 
Biology at the Ohio Wesleyan University, 
where he organized a large and prosperous 

Professor Caldwell comes to Northwestern 
with a very distinguished record. He was for 
seven years a Fellow of the University of Edin- 
burgh and Assistant Professor of Philosophy 
there. A residence of from two to three 
years in France and Germany familiarized him 
with social conditions and questions in these 
countries, and on the invitation of the Sage 
School of Philosophy of Cornell University he 
came to the United States, believing this to be 
the greatest field for the study of social con- 
ditions and philosophical activities. 

From the Sage School of Philosophy he 
was called to the Department of Political 
Economy in Chicago University. 

Dr. Caldwell has been a contributor to the 
Philosophical Review, the yournal of Politi- 
cal Economy and numerous other reviews. 
He has also written articles in Mind 
(London) and several articles in the last edition 
of Chambers' Encyclopedia. He is at present 
completing a philosophical treatise that will 
shortly go to press. The matter of the book 
was delivered in the form of special lectures 
given in the University of Edinburgh in the 
fall of 1893. Dr. Caldwell obtained leave of 
absence from the University of Chicago for 
that purpose. 

He combines the learning and enthusiasm of 
the scholar and teacher with fine social and per- 
sonal qualities, and his brilliant record as stu- 
dent, teacher and author gives promise of a 
continued useful and eminent career. 


In the Botanical Department this year the 




students have investigated the morphology 
of twelve plants representing prominent groups. 
The microscopic as well as the gross anatomy 
of each is carefully worked out. Lectures 
giving special attention to the comparative 
features of the groups and to the facts deduced 
from them bearing upon the general theory of 
evolution constitute an essential part of the 

Experimental work upon the physiology of 
plants has followed the work in morphology. 
The botanical journal club has considered its 
cross-pollenation, movements of plants and 
influence of environment upon plant life, a 
portion of this work being conducted on the 
seminary plan. Throughout the year Miss Bar- 
ber has carried on advanced work upon the 
morphology and physiology of Tropaeolum. 

The material resources of the Chemical 
Department have been increased during the 
current year by the addition of a room equipped 
with special conveniences for water analysis 
and milk analysis. It has gained also in effi- 
ciency by the granting of an assistantshij), to 
which Mr. Vernon J. Hall, class of '94, was 
appointed. Mr. Hall had already served as 
an under graduate assistant. The four year- 
courses of instruction have been continued and 
some research work is in progress, as well as 
some work for the city health officer. 

The size of classes has for several years 
taxed the capacity of the laboratories, until now 
the department is seriously inconvenienced to 
accommodate its students properly. 

Two new features have appeared in the 
department of the English Language. A 
course in paragraphing has been substituted 
for the work heretofore required, and the work 
in versification has been thrown forward a 
year. The course in paragraphing has been 
introduced in order to meet an apparent defi- 
ciency by giving to every regular student more 
specific drill in writing to a point. The class 
meets once a week, and every member writes 
a paragraph for every session. The limits of 
these paragraphs are a minimum of two hun- 
dred and a maximum of three hundred words. 
Nearly all the paragraphs are read before the 
class. Before reading, the student is required 

to state his point in the form of a specific 
proposition, which he proposes to defend. 
" Glittering generalities" are not tolerated. The 
writer must know and be able to state clearly 
just what point he proposes to make. After 
reading he is criticised by both instructor and 
class-mates. The result of this new line of 
work has been a perceptible and general 
growth in the direction of clear thinking and 
concise expression. 

The second new feature consists in the 
inauguration of a seminar course in English 
Criticism. Only graduates and seniors who 
are making a major of the English language, 
are admitted. The work consists of an 
exhaustive study of the style of a given author. 
In this work the instructor gives each student a 
biography of the best criticism that has been 
written on the author in question. Much of 
the work is necessarily done in the large city 
libraries. The student analyzes and collates 
his results under specific heads, making a 
consensus of critical opinion on every promi- 
nent characteristic of his author. Then he 
reads the author's works critically, with the 
object of selecting numerous illustrations of 
every characteristic named in his analysis. 
Finally, he combines the results of his work 
in a thesis of not less than 5,000 words. 

The work in the department of English 
Literature follows three chief lines. The 
first of these is historical and the purpose is to 
give a general view of the subject and a brief 
discussion, with representative selections of 
the most important English and American 
authors from the fourteenth century to the 
present day. Those who elect to pursue the 
subject further may choose courses in which 
the greatest masters of verse and prose are 
studied for longer periods. The method with 
a voluminous author like Robert Browning is 
to have all members of the class read as many 
of the most characteristic works as the time, 
eleven weeks, permits, and in addition, to re- 
quire each one who takes the course to read 
and report on some poem not included in this 
general list. The poems assigned for prelim- 
inary reading by all are in part re-read and 
discussed in the lecture room, and after a suffi- 
cient basis for an introduction has been obtained 

i8 9 5-] 



by this means, the effort is made to estimate the 
author's general characteristics. 

The course for graduates consists of a study 
of the history and principles of literary criti- 

Romance Languages. — Three advanced 
courses in French are given this year beside a 
conversation class. In addition a seminary class 
has been formed, meeting one hour a week 
and pursuing independent topics in connection 
with the course on eighteenth century litera- 
ture. Each member is assigned an author, 
is expected to read as widely as possible from 
his works and to present a series of papers 
indicating critical study. 

A new course in modern literature will be 
given next year, intended only for advanced 
students. It will be conducted somewhat on 
the seminary method with wide private read- 
ing. A course in scientific French will also be 

The study of Geology in the college is 
entirely elective. No knowledge of this science 
is required for any degree given by the Uni- 
versity. Three courses are offered. The first 
course is open to all students, and more than 
one-third of all the students who graduate 
have taken it. It consists now of about sixty 
exercises. There are two other courses of the 
same length but restricted to those who have 
taken the first course. 

Departmertt of German. The work of the 
Germanic Seminary has chiefly centered upon 
an investigation of John Wesley's relation to 
German hymnology. From the Moravian 
archives at Nazarett, Pa., Drew Seminary 
library and Garrett Biblical Institute have been 
obtained invaluable original documents which 
place the researches upon the most solid found- 
ation. Advanced courses have been given in 
the poetry of the early part of the nineteenth 
century, and modern German fiction, and a 
new course in scientific German has been 
established. New advanced courses will be 
offered next year on the poetry of the common 
people ( Volkslied), and the old poetry of the 
church (R~irc/ienlied), and Luther and his 
influence on German. 

The students of German have also assisted 
with great acceptability at the University set- 
tlement in Chicago, presenting to the Germans 

who attend the settlement, programs of a liter- 
ary, musical or dramatic nature. 

A word of acknowledgment is due to the 
German press of Chicago, which has mani- 
fested its kindly interest in the work of the 
department throughout the year by very ex- 
tended recognition. 

Professor Henry Cohn has been given 
authority by the University to solicit from 
friends gifts of books or money by the German 
department of the University. 

In the Department of Greek substantial 
progress has been made. For the first time 
in the history of the institution the Sopho- 
more class in Greek has been divided into 
two sections with most excellent results. Mr. 
Hudilston is giving- a course in advanced 
Greek composition. A course of illustrated 
lectures on " Old Greek Life " is being given. 
By the generosity of a number of the Alumni 
and former students the funds necessary to 
procure the lantern slides have been raised and 
the slides are now being prepared under the 
direction of Professor Emerson, of Cornell. 
The advanced Greek work has been reorgan- 
ized, lectures devoted wholly to the history of 
Greek Literature being given. During the first 
year Greek poetry will be discussed ; and 
during the second year, Greek prose litera- 
ture. By the Greek texts read in class and by 
the use of standard translations the student will 
acquire a general familiarity with the whole 
range of Greek Literature. A new course 
in the History of Greek Art will be offered 
next year. 

In the Historical Department some of the 
courses in the History of Continental Europe 
have been expanded so as to require one-third 
more time. Also, instead of the advanced 
course on the " Nature and Method of History," 
a course entitled " Introduction to Historical 
Study " is given by Prof. Stanclift this year. 
It has been found by experience that there are 
certain general facts and principles which stu- 
dents ought to learn either before or while do- 
ing work on special periods of history. Such 
subjects are presented in the course just men- 
tioned, and students pursuing certain courses 
are required to take this one in addition. 
Among the topics discussed are : " The Na- 
ture of History," " Limits and Divisions of 




History," " Relation of History to Other 
Studies," " Sources of History," " Value of 
Historical Study," " Methods of Historical 
Study," " Primitive Man," " Ethnology " 
(especially of Europe), "Influence of Geo- 
graphical Conditions on the Course of History." 

President Rogers is delivering during the 
second term jto the students in International 
Law in the College of Liberal Arts a course of 
lectures on Foreign Relations. The course in- 
cludes an account of the great international con- 
gresses which have been assembled during the 
present century as well as a discussion of all 
the important treaties which have been nego- 
tiated, more particular attention being paid to 
those negotiated by the United States. Con- 
siderable attention has been paid to the ques- 
tions growing out of the construction of the 
Suez Canal and the proposed construction of 
the Nicaragua and Panama Canals. The 
Eastern Question, involving the international 
relations of the European powers to Turkey, 
has also received much attention. The course 
is a new one, being given this year for the first 

In the Mathematical Department enough 
courses are offered to allow a student during 
four years to devote fully half his entire time 
to this one branch of knowledge. Some courses 
are designed chiefly to give variety and breadth ; 
more are arranged to give training in the rigid, 
critical methods of abstract science. 

In addition to this undergraduate work ? 
graduate courses are conducted equivalent in 
amount to the first year of the strongest post- 
graduate institutions. The Fellow in this De- 
partment, Miss Fanny Gates, contributed to 
the Annals of Mathematics for October, '94, a 
short paper entitled " Some Observations on the 
Nine-Point Conic and Its Reciprocal " which 
was favorably noticed by geometers. She is 
now engaged in research work in the geomet- 
rical theory of imaginaries. 

The present plan of the Department is to 
emphasize j'articularly the geometrical side of 
mathematics. Hence the course in modern 
synthetic geometry, or projective geometry, 
new last year, and offered again for 1895-6. 
Hence, also, the two new courses in mechanics, 
one given this current year, the other to be 
offered next year. Others of similar tendency 

are contemplated. A beginning has been made 
of a cabinet of models. Thirteen admirable 
plaster models of quadric surfaces, together with 
seven paper ones, have been purchased and are 
used at present. Students have contributed 
several pasteboard models of regular polyedra. 

Prof. White was elected in December, '94, 
as one of the three new Directors of the 
American Mathematical Society, to serve three 
years. The monthly Bulletin of the Society 
printed recently a paper on the " Reduction of 
Resultants," purely algebraic in character, 
presented by him at the annual meeting in 

In the Department of Mineralogy is offered 
a new course, which treats of the qualities, 
sources, and values of the mineral products of 
the United States, drainage and water supply, 
and similar subjects. There are now offered 
two courses treating of the characteristics and 
nature of minerals ; two, of the composition and 
origin of rocks ; and one on Economic Geology. 

The set of 131 models, showing the forms in 
which crystals occur in nature, are made of 
pear tree wood, by hand, and are mathematic- 
ally exact. 

The teaching force of the Department of 
Music has been notably strengthened and en- 
larged so that instruction is now given in all 
branches required of a well-equipped school. 
The facilities for practice offered by the new 
pipe organ have increased the study of that in- 
strument three fold. The programmes of the 
student recitals show a decided gain both in 
standard and accomplishment. The theoretical 
study of music receives especial attention and 
is much more thorough and comprehensive 
than in any of the Chicago music schools. The 
monthly recitals of Chamber Music by 
members of the faculty continue to present the 
best of classical works. So far this season the 
following important numbers have been given : 

Mozart's Quintette, for clarionet and strings; Beethoven's 
Serenade, for flute, violin and viola, op. 25; Weber's Concerto, for 
clarionet, op. 73; Schubert's Piano J rio, op 99; Bargiel's Quar- 
tette, for strings, op. 15; Dvorak's Quartette, for strings, op 51; 
Mendelssohn's First String Quartette and Dvorack's Bagatelles, 
op. 47, for violin, viola, bells and organ. 

At the organ recitals standard selections have 
been given from the works of Bach, Mendels- 
sohn, Guilmont, Handel and others, and vocal 
numbers have been sung from the great orato- 
rios and from the noted song writers. Three 

>3 9 5-] 


l 9 

lectures are given every week on historical and 
technical subjects and a recent feature of inter- 
est has been the thematic and structural analy- 
sis of the symphonies played at the Thomas 

In Pedagogies the class will read during 
the current year about fifteen hundred pages 
on the history of education. As in former 
years the class meets twice a week. The dis- 
cussions and criticisms upon the authors read 
are assigned, during the second and third terms 
of the present year, to the Tuesday hour ; and 
the Thursday hour is occupied by lectures on 
methods in teaching, with practical applications 
to the subject which the members of the class 
are expecting to teach. 

Department of Philosophy. The organization 
of the new department of moral and social 
philosophy has permitted the following re- 
arrangement of courses in the department of 
philosophy. Hereafter the required work 
usually taken in the fourth year will consist 
of weekly lectures, with required reading of 
two books, on the philosophy of religion. An 
entirely new two-hour course, consisting of 
lectures on metaphysics and epistemology will 
be given next year. 

The Philosophical Seminary has been as- 
signed permanent quarters in room 4, Lunt 

Department of Moral and Social Ph ilosophy. 
In the subject of ethics two courses are open : 
Firstly, a general course on the phenomena of 
moral consciousness and the different prob- 
lems of ethics regarded as a special science. In 
this course students are given a working 
knowledge of the subject as a whole, and are 
put upon the way of continuing their studies 
in the subject. Secondly, there is a seminary 
for the advanced study of ethical questions and 
ethical systems and such topics as require 
prolonged investigation. 

In sociology three courses are offered : 
Firstly, a general course of instruction in the 
principles and general theory of descriptive 
sociology. Secondly, there is a course in 
practical sociology. In the latter course the 
student is instructed further in the scientific 
laws that govern actual social conditions, and 
at the same time introduced to the main ques- 

tions of practical sociology, such as the treat- 
ment of the dependent, and the delinquent, and 
the defective classes ; the subject of charity- 
organization, prison and reformatory manage- 
ment, treatment of the insane, the study of the 
different social classes and of the problems of 
population and immigration and so on. TJiird- 
ly, a seminary will be instituted in which 
capable students may enter upon the work of 

In the Department of Physics an especial 
attempt has been made to cultivate, side by 
by side, mathematical and experimental physics, 
never, in any course, either elementary or ■ 
advanced, losing sight of one in pursuit of 
the other. In the graduate department the 
dynamical theory of light has formed the 
special subject of study for this year. The 
work has included a detailed study of Basset's 
Physical Optics, together with a number of 
special memoirs on diffraction as involved in 
spectroscopy. Since the appearance of the 
last number of the Record, a new inethod of 
obtaining the arc spectrum of an element, free 
from carbon of the ordinary arc, has been per- 
fected and described in Phil. J\Iag., Oct. 

A series of researches on time lag in mag- 
netization is well under way, an instrument 
having been devised and made by which mag- 
netic changes taking place during intervals as 
small as the one-thousandth part of a second 
can be studied. 

The radiation of heated gases has been 
observed by means of the spectroscope, the 
especial object of the work being the determina- 
tion of the effect of the presence of one sub- 
stance on the spectrum of another. 

Incidentally to one of the above mentioned 
pieces of work, a large number of new copper 
lines has been discovered. A working map 
of the arc spectrum of magnesium is well 
under way. * 

The Department of Zoology. Anew Zoo- 
logical laboratory has been established on the 
third floor of University Hall in the rooms 
formerly occupied by the library. It is pro- 
vided with twenty-five excellent microscopes 




of recent make and nine otners were kindly 
loaned the laboratory. In addition to the 
microscopes, the laboratory contains several 
good microtomes, dissecting microscopes, paraf- 
fine ovens, incubator, aquaria, glassware, 
and reagents. The teaching equipment has 
been greatly increased by the purchase of a 
complete set of Leuckart's zoological charts 
and several sets of Ziegler's wax models of 
developing embryos. The library facilities 
for work in zoology have been increased by 
the addition of eight of the best biological and 
zoological periodicals to the subscription list 
and by the purchase of a considerable number 
of text books and monographs. 

The subject matter of zoology (including 
under that term animal morphology and physi- 
ology) is so varied and extensive that it is im- 
possible in our present circumstances to cover 
more than a limited portion of that field. The 
department of zoology in this University has 
been organized under the conviction that it is 
better to do a limited amount of work well 
than to attempt to teach all that ought to be 
taught, and consequently fail to do thorough 
work in anything. However, to partly avoid 
the danger of too narrow teaching different 
courses are offered on alternate years, so that 
at present any student who desires may elect 
seventy-two term hours in zoology covering 
nine different subjects, viz., general biology, 
embryology, invertebrate morphology, verte- 
brate morphology, osteology, mammalian anat- 
omy, histology, studies in evolution, studies 
in heredity, seminary and research work. 


With the coming of young women into Uni- 
versity life a far more serious problem than 
simply providing for them dormitories and 
dining-rooms confronts the University authori- 
ties. A few years of rough experience may 
not be a bad thing for the young man in teach- 
ing him to make his own way and settle his 
own questions, but no wise parents are willing 
their daughters should be subjected to the same 
discipline. Many traits that are admirable in 
the man are undesirable in the woman, and the 
university that would do its best for its women 
students must in some way create for them the 
atmosphere and influence of home life. The 
best schools even for women alone are begin- 
ning to realize that this is not attained by mas- 
sing hundreds of students in one great body, 
but by the cottage system, which separates 
them into smaller groups, and so makes pos- 
sible a closeness of influence and refinement of 
family life. Northwestern has accommodations 
in the Woman's Hall and College cottages for 
only 1 60 of her women students. What she 
greatly needs is at least two more halls or cot- 
tages with accommodation for about fifty stu- 
dents each, that might furnish beautiful and at- 
tractive homes for smaller groups of young 
women. Why should not the friends of 
Frances E. Willard, the first De*an of the 
Woman's College, begin this work by building 
Willard Hall as a memorial of her, on the 
ample grounds of the present Woman's Hall? 



In June last William Deering placed in the 
hands of the treasurer of the University fifty 
thousand dollars as an endowment for the 
professorship of physiology in the Medial 
School, the chair to be known as the N. S. 
Davis professorship of physiology. This is 
the second time William Deering has shown 
his generosity to the Medical School by a large 

This first endowment of a professorship in 

the school marks an epoch in its history. 

The donor has so often been thanked for his 
munificent gifts of money, time and advice to 
Northwestern University, that it becomes 
doubly difficult to re-express appreciation. It 
can best be done by so using the proceeds of 
this fund as to make teaching in the department 
of physiology pre-eminently good, to further 
original research by which man's knowledge 
of man may be broadened. 

It is anticipated that the recent election of 
Winfield Scott Hall to the professorship will 




accomplish this. Professor Hall has done such 
good work as an original investigator that 
much more can be expected of him in the 
future, lie is a tried teacher. As an alumnus 
of the College of Liberal Arts and the Medical 
School he is warmly attached to Northwestern 

Prof. Hall will spend, while in Europe, sev- 
eral thousand dollars for apparatus and equip- 
ment of the laboratory of physiology. He will 
begin his teaching next September. 


Since the extensive additions and alterations 
completed at Mercy Hospital last year, the 
facilities for the teaching and practice of general 
surgery have been placed on a footing equal 
with those of the best hospitals in the United 

Three operating rooms have been conveni- 
ently arranged on different floors and built in 
such a manner as to take advantage of every 
resource for light, temperature, ventilation and 
asepsis. The furniture of the operating rooms 
is constructed entirely of glass and iron which 
makes it capable of the most thorough cleans- 
ing. Each room is also supplied with a small 
steam sterilizer, which makes it possible to 
sterilize by steam all instruments, robes, sheets 
and dressings immediately before and during 
the progress of operations. 

As a still further precaution against possible 
infection from bed contact, both in the surgical 
and the medical department, a large disinfector 
has been constructed which will disinfect and 
sterilize by super-heated steam under consider- 
able pressure a large amount of clothing, bed- 
ding, etc., at one time. 

With this instrument in constant operation, 
every patient received by the hospital will be 
provided with a bed rendered absolutely non- 
infective, and when convalescent will receive 
sterilized clothing. 

These advantages, supplemented by the 
skilled nursing now provided by the new train- 
ing school, will meet every requirement for 
supplying patients with the very best of treat- 
ment, and give to members of the profession and 
students of medicine and surgery the best of 
instruction in technique and management. 


The regular public commencement exercises 
of the Northwestern University Medical and 
Dental schools took place in Central Music 
Hall, commencing at 2 P. M., April 24, 1894. 
The large hall was well filled by an appreciative 
audience, and a band furnished excellent music. 
The platform was occupied by the professors and 
instructors of the two schools, Dr. Henry Wade 
Rogers, President of the University presiding. 
Prayer was offered by Rev. Arthur Edwards, 
after which N. S. Davis, dean of the medical 
school, in behalf of the medical Faculty, presented 
a class of seventy-two young men who had com- 
plied with all the requirements for graduation, 
and President Rogers conferred upon them the 
degree of doctor of medicine.. This was fol- 
lowed by a brief but earnest and appropriate 
address by the Dean, congratulating the mem- 
bers of the class on their entrance into the ranks 
of an honorable, learned and most respon- 
sible profession, and reminding them that 
untiring industry, unbending integrity, and a 
genuine desire to alleviate human suffering, 
must be their chief reliance for a true, success- 
ful professional career through life. Edgar D. 
Swain, Dean of the Dental School presented 
the class of candidates for graduation for that 
institution and President Rogers conferred 
upon each of its members the degree of D.D.S. 

The Dean then congratulated the members 
of the class on the completion of their pre- 
liminary work and their honorable entrance 
upon the practical duties of their chosen pro- 
fession. He spoke of the rapid progress of the 
dental school, of its high standard of require- 
ments, and of its future prospects, in such 
terms as to elicit the applause of the audience. 
A pleasant finale was given to the proceedings 
by the presentation to the Dental School of an 
excellent bronze medallion likeness of the 
late Dr. Walter Webb Allport, one of 
the chief founders of the dental school. 

It was a free gift from the family of the de- 
deceased and by their request was presented by 
Dr. N. S. Davis, who briefly stated the chief 
points of interest in the professional career and 
character of Dr. Allport, with whom he had 
enjoyed a familiar acquaintance for more than 




thirty years. Dr. George N. Gushing accepted 
the valued gift in behalf of the Dental School 
in a very short and highly appropriate speech. 
The whole programme for the day was com- 

pleted in such a way as to be highly satisfactory 
to the large audience and showed both Medical 
and Dental Schools to be enjoying a high de- 
gree of prosperity. 



The anticipations that were expressed in the 
report of 1893-4 °^ an increased attendance in 
the present year have been fully justified. The 
total registration up to the present time is 187, 
an increase of nearly 40 per cent over the at- 
tendance of last year. This is, with one ex- 
ception, the highest figure of attendance ever 
i-eached and will in all probability be much ex- 
ceeded in 1895-6. The inducement of new and 
comfortable quarters when it becomes well 
known is likely to be of great importance in re- 
taining and even increasing its normal patron- 

In June last Nathan Abbott, Esq., who had 
been a professor in the school for two years, 
resigned to take the position of Professor of 
Law at Hanford University. His courses are 
now being given by Edwin Burritt Smith,Esq., 
of Chicago, and Harvey B. Hurd, Esq., of Ev- 
anston. Mr. Smith is well known as the Re- 
porter of Appellate Court decisions for a num- 
ber of years and is a member for Illinois of the 
Council of the American Bar Association. Mr. 
Hurd has long been prominent at the Chicago 
bar and is the author of a standard edition of 
the Illinois Statutes. 

The school was represented in August last 
at the Saratoga meeting of the American Bar 
Association by President Rogers, Professor 
Smith, Professor Wigmore and Mr. James H. 
Raymond, President of the Alumni Association 
and a Trustee of the University. President 
Rogers, as retiring Chairman of the Commit- 
tee on Legal Education, read an exhaustive re- 
port on the law schools of the country, giving 
details as to number, courses, methods of in- 
struction and requirements for admission. Pro- 
fessor Smith was a member of the Committee 
on Securing Uniformity of State Legislation. 

Professor Wigmore read a paper on Legal 
Education, advocating exclusive devotion to 
legal training on the part of students while in 
the Law School. Mr. Raymond took part in 
the discussion upon methods of legal education. 

Four prizes are offered this year to the stu- 
dents in the Law School : 

1. The Callaghan Prize of $100 for the 
best general examination on legal topics. 

2. The Glos Prize of $50 for the best 

3. A prize of $50 for the best record at- 
tained in the work of the first two terms of the 
Senior year. 

4. A prize of $50 for the best essay suita- 
ble for publication in the Northwestern Law 

The leading articles in the Northwestern 
Law Review during the current school year 
have been as follows : 

Herbert S. Hadley, '94, " The Right to Pri- 
vacy " ; Hubert E. Page, '95, " Politics and the 
Supreme Court in South Carolina " ; Presi- 
dent Rogers, "The Law-Making Power"; 
Hon. H. W. Blodgett (formerly Dean of the 
School), "The Fur Seal Arbitration "; Albert 
B. Davidson, '95, " Contributory and Compara- 
tive Negligence in Illinois " ; Robert D. Brown, 
'94, " The Survival of Actions in Tort " ; 
Professor Harriman, " Corporate Assets as a 
Trust Fund for the Benefit of Creditors." 

The school as yet requires only a High 
School diploma or its equivalent and it must be 
a long time before this requirement can be 
nominally raised. Meanwhile it can do some- 
thing to attract as many men as possible of 
more thoroughly previous training, and with a 
view to marking the future probable increase of 
such students the following tables have been 
prepared to indicate the number of students 




possessing a college degree of same sort : 

1892-3. 1893-4. 1894-5. 

Whole niunbcr 61 54 4 

Percentage of total membership 35 39 39 

There have been some slight changes this 
year in the treatment of courses. The course 
on Elementary Law has been apportioned 
among the first term subjects of Contracts, 
Torts and Property, certain portions of the 
course being omitted. This arrangement allows 
a much needed increase in the time given to the 
above three subjects. The courses on Carriers, 
Sales and Personal Property have been amal- 
gamated into a continuous course dealing with 
those topics in such an order and fullness as 
seems desirable to the instructor, the courses 
being all in the hands of the same instructor. 
The same arrangement has been followed in 
the Equity courses. 

The time allotments have been remodeled, 
partly through the time set free, as above 
stated, partly through a general slight 
readjustment. The only important changes are 
the increase of time for Real Property, Torts, 
Evidence and Contracts ; each of these now 
has between one and two terms (on a five-hour 
basis), instead of, as previously, one term only. 
For Real Property this extension was put into 
force in the past year. These fundamental 
subjects need every hour of the extension thus 

The order of courses has been changed in 
the direction of the more accurate grading ( from 
elementary to advanced) already begun the year 

before last, the object being to place last those 
courses which require for intelligent work an 
acquaintance with other subjects. For this 
purpose Real Property has been removed to 
the first and later terms of the first year, and 
Partnership and Commercial Paper placed in 
the second year, Equity and Commercial Paper 
preceding Partnership, and all three preceding 
Corporations. It is not easy to adjust the 
grading as it should be, for a number of other 
considerations have to be regarded ; but the or- 
der now adopted seems capable of being fairly 
permanent as long as the course is confined to 
two years. 

The books used during the past year have 
been both books of text and books of cases. 
The division was as follows : Books of text, 9 ; 
books of cases, 8 ; lectures, supplemented by 
various references to books and reports, 10. 
Where books of cases have been used the only 
common element has been the study of the cases 
by the student, each instructor adopting his own 
method of guiding and supplementing the 
work. The increase in the employment of 
this method of study has only kept pace with 
the general development throughout the country 
in legal education. It has given general satis- 
faction to the students and has decidedly 
raised the standing of the school in the com- 
munity and throughout the profession. 
Further examination into the conditions of its 
use would be premature and must be post- 
poned for another year. 


S CHOOL OF P HARM A C T. Selection (Waltz) Herman 

Announcement of Honors— By the Dean. 

The regular semi-annual Commencement of Presentation on Behalf of the Senior Class— Mr. Elmer E. Patten 

the School of Pharmacy of the University was SelectioQ (Mazourka) ^^. Navarro 

held in the Auditorium recital hall February 

5th at 2 130 p. m. A large audience was pres- The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was 

ent. The President of the University and the conferred upon a class of thirty-nine members 

Dean of the School presided. The following by the President of the University. Class 

is the programme of exercises : honors were awarded as follows : Messrs. W. 

T. T. Davies, Charles A. Erickson and Elmer 

Overture D. Auber t? -n , c .-. , , ,, 

Prayer— Rev. L P. Mercer. ^. " at ten, of the Senior class, and Messrs. 

Selection (Gavotte) L. Thiere Frank Wright, Ernest F. Knapp, Howard C. 

e , » ^ dd J ress t0 the class ~ By Dr - John RidIon - Lisle and J. Albert Skinner, of the Junior 

Selection (Rondo) ...Brooke J 

Conferring of Degrees— By the President. class. This class is somewhat smaller than has 

2 4 


generally been graduated at the end of a win- 
ter term, but the next Senior class promises to 
be very much larger, possibly over twice as 
large. The class wore the cap and gown in 
accordance with the action of the Board of 
Trustees prescribing that dress as necessary to 
be worn on ceremonial occasions. This is the 
first commencement which has taken place 
since the action of the Board. The class pre- 
sented a fine appearance in their academic garb 
and the new rule was most favorably received 
by the members. 

Since the publication of the last number of 
the Record no very important changes have 
taken place in the School of Pharmacy. The 
course for the degree of Pharmaceutical Chem- 
ist, announced in a previous number, was in- 
augurated on the ist of October last, with six 
students entering for the course. This course 
is characterized by advanced work in Phar- 
macy, Botany and Chemistry and is open to 
those students who have completed the course 
for the Degree of Graduate in Pharmacy in the 
college or who have taken the equivalent of 
this work elsewhere. From present indications 
it is probable that the next class for this course 
will be a very large one. The amount of 

practical Pharmacy, Botany and Chemistry 
given in this course is sufficient to fit the stu- 
dent to occupy the position of practical analyst 
or microscopist in establishments engaged in 
the manufacture and assay of pharmaceutical 
preparations. There is a demand for education 
such as is given in this course and it is there- 
fore likely that when its opportunities are fully 
understood it will become the popular one. 

Since the last issue of the Record Mr. Max 
Wickhorst has been added to the force of in- 
structors in the Department of Chemistry in 
the Schools of Medicine and Pharmacy. Mr. 
Wickhorst completed the course in the School 
of Pharmacy in the year 1891 and during the 
following year acted as Assistant to the Chair 
of Chemistry in the School of Medicine of the 
University. Two years were then spent by 
Mr. Wickhorst in the laboratory of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy Railroad as chemist, in 
which time he acquired a large amount of prac- 
tical experience of value in his present position 
as instructor in the Quantitative Laboratory. 

The total attendance of the School of Phar- 
macy during the college year of 1893—94 was 
330. The total attendance of the school during 
the year 1894-95 was 336. The attendance of 
the present class is 56 Juniors and 84 Seniors. 



The Dental Department is confronted with 
its usual and well nigh ever present problem, 
namely, how to obtain room to accommodate its 
growth. When the school was reorganized, in 
1 89 1, and the University became absolute 
owner, undertaking to receive its revenues, pay 
its bills and be responsible for its management, 
two floors of the building at Indiana avenne 
and Twenty-second street were leased for two 
years(the building being torn down afterwards). 
Those rooms were full the second year and 
larger accommodations were provided by add- 
ing two stories to Davis Hall, the Medical and 
Dental Schools being housed together. Con- 
siderable disappointment was felt by the Den- 
tal faculty that the room provided could not be 
made more ample, and the school filled it to 
overflowing as soon as occupied. For the suc- 

ceeding session (the present one) it became 
necessary to rent a store on State street for the 
technic laboratories. This will not be availa- 
ble for next year, and the necessity for enlarge- 
ment before the opening of the next session is 
more urgent than ever before. Just what the 
solution of the problem will be is not yet ap- 
parent but it is gratifying to be able to say that 
it is already receiving the careful consideration 
of those in authority. Davis Hall does not ad- 
mit of enlargement and the Medical School 
needs, and will be glad to use, the whole build- 
ing. It seems most desirable, therefore, from 
every point of view that a new place be pro- 
vided for the Dental School, if possible, in the 
immediate neighborhood of its present location, 
and ample enough to provide for reasonable ex- 
pectations of increasing numbers for at least 
ten years to come. 


The death of Prof. Charles W. Earle, Dean 
of the college, has made several changes in the 
working faculty. 

Dr. I. N. Danforth was generally recognized 
as the proper person to assume the duties of 
Dean. His interest in the development of the 
school, his long experience as a medical teacher 
and original investigator as well as the fact that 
he has been connected with the Woman's Med- 
ical College since its organization fit him pre- 
eminently for the position. 

Dr. Eliza H. Root succeeds to the chair of 
Obstetrics and Miss Mary M. Bartelme, B.L., 
is Lecturer in Medical Jurisprudence and Dr. 
Elise Berwig Lecturer on Hygiene. 

Dr. John M. Dodson has been elected Pro- 
fessor of Diseases of Children. 

Dr. L. L. Skelton was elected Lecturer on 
Physiology to succeed Dr. Mary A. Mixer,who 
was compelled by ill health to resign the chair. 

This year marks the completion of the tran- 
sition from a three to a four-year course. 
Considering the many difficulties involved in 
the re-arrangement of lectures and laboratories, 
this has been accomplished with but little fric- 
tion. Some conflicts in hours have been una- 
voidable. The present arrangement makes the 
Northwestern University Medical School equal 
to the best in requirement and course and the 
leading woman's college in the West. 


John Milton Dodson was born at Berlin, Wis., 
in 1859. He was educated in the Common and 

and High Schools of Berlin and at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, from which he gradu- 
ated with the degree of A.B. in 1880. In 1882 
he received the degree of M.D. from Rush 
Medical College and the same degree in 1883 
from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, 
Pa. He graduated in Berlin, Wis., in 1885-88. 
In 1888 he completed a second course of study 
at the University of Wisconsin, receiving the 
degree of A.M. 

In 1889 Dr. Dodson located in Chicago, oc- 
cupying the same month the position of Dem- 
onstrator of Anatomy in Rush Medical College, 
which position he still holds. In January, 1891, 

he was appointed Professor of Physiology in 
Rush, the position he holds at present. He is 
a member of local and State medical societies 
in Wisconsin and Illinois. Dr. Dodson was 
made Professor of Diseases of Children in 
Northwestern University Woman's Medical 
School in 1894, succeeding the late Prof. 
Charles W. Earle. His writings have been 
confined to contributions to the proceedings of 
medical societies and to medical journals. 
Among them are " The Treatment of Hyper- 
pyrexia," 1884; "The Diagnostic Significance 
of Epithelia in the Urinary Sediment," 1890; 
" The County Insane Asylum System in Wis- 
consin," 1 89 1. 

There has been much improvement and 
development in the matter of the microscopical 
laboratory in the Woman's Medical School. 
They have been supplied with new and 
improved microscopes by Beck, Leitz, Bausch 
and Lomb, microtomes, imbedding baths, hot 
and dry air sterilizers, incubators, and micro- 
accessories and apparatus for blood and other 
clinical work. The course is divided in sub- 
jects beginning with histology and elementary 
biology for the first year ; general pathology 
for the second ; and special pathology and gross 
pathological anatomy, and bacteriology for the 
third ; and for the fourth, or senior year, autop- 
sies and clinical microscopy. 

The laboratory accommodates over forty 
students, and each has a set of reagents suita- 
able for the work in hand. Every student is 
required to pursue the work by herself, follow- 
ing out every detail in hardening, embedding, 
staining, and cutting sections for the tissues 
by the various methods. Various types of 
animals are given to each student to dissect 
so as to insure a thorough acquaintance with 
the main facts of osteology, physiology, anat- 
omy and embryology. In this way a foundation 
is laid for the work of the second year in 
general pathology under Dr. Bertha E. Bush. 
When the general principles of disease are 
understood, the third course, or special pathol- 
ogy of each organ, is undertaken and with it 
clinical medicine and gross pathological 
anatomy. The bactereological work runs 

2 5 




coincidently to this, and the relation of micro- 
organisms to disease are taught hy Prof. G. 
II. Weaver, with practical work in the labora- 
tory. The fourth, senior year, clinical micro- 
scopy is taken, and includes the examination 
of discharges, parasitic and blood diseases, 
adulterations of food and such subjects as are 
likely to be brought under the notice of the 
general physician. Autopsies are held and 
conducted at the Cook county morgue and 
some of the hospitals. 

Every effort is made to encourage the stud- 
ents to take up advanced or original research 
work in the laboratories and every advantage 
is given them. The amount of material is 
daily increasing, and more than a thousand 
sections are made in a week. Examinations of 
sputa, discharges, tumors, etc., are made by the 
students for the dispensary and clinics, and so, 

in this way, they gain practical experience. 

The museum contains some valuable speci- 
mens from the collections of the late Prof. 
Byford and Prof. C. W. Earle and others. 
Exchanges are made with other hospitals and 
institutions in various parts of the country and 
the school will always be glad to receive material 
and preserve it and make a report on the same. 
Photographic work is done in connection with 
the micro-department ; gross and micro-speci- 
mens are photographed and made into lantern 
slides, etc., for using at the various lectures and 
demonstrations. Each year new and improved 
apparatus is obtained and every effort is made 
to give the student a practical and useful edu- 
cation. Students from the department of litera- 
ture, science and arts can thus obtain a scientific 
education in this city without changing their 



It is the intention of the editorial committee to 
reserve this column space for the discussion of mat- 
ters which the different schools of the alumni may 
feel to be of University importance. The editor will 
be glad to receive communications which may raise 
discussion, and to print them in the subsequent num- 
bers of the Record. Only such matters, of course, can 
be printed as meet the approval of the editorial com. 


The item from the minutes of the faculty 
about the granting of a master's degree to 
college graduates in our professional schools 
reads as follows : 


The degree will be conferred upon the com- 
pletion of eighteen term-hours of advanced 
work in an approved field of study, in addi- 
tion to the completion of the maximum pre- 
scribed professional course. The sufficiency 
of the work done will be ascertained by an ex- 
amination, following the presentation of a satis- 
factory thesis. 

Registration must be made not later than the 
beginning of the final year of the professional 
course. In regard to the topic of the thesis, 
the date of its presentation, and the time of the 
examination, the same regulations will be 
observed as in the case of other candidates. — 
Transcript from Faculty Minutes. 

The needs of the University are a matter 
about which all its friends should constantly 
think. The President in his last report talked 
of several things that the University wants. 
Money is wanted for books, and to discharge 
the indebtedness incurred in the erection of the 
library building. A museum building is also 
needed by the University, and also a new 
academy building. The department of music 
is also in need of a building, and this would 
doubtless be a real acquisition to the community 
and to the University. Additional instructors are 
also required by the University. 

The editor has received promises from the 
secretaries of the alumni associations of the 
different schools of help in the matter of ob- 
taining the correct addresses of all the alumni 
of the University. It is hoped that those who 
receive the Record will assist the editor and the 
secretaries by a co-operation in this regard. 
Incorrect addresses will from time to time be 
noted in the Record, and receivers of the jour- 
nal are requested to correct them. Anyone 
who receives the Record addressed to a false 
address might inform the authorities of the 

1 895-] 



A new University publication has appeared 
at the University of Michigan. It is called 
" 77/c Michigan University Alumnus, pub- 
lished monthly through the college year in the 
interest of alumni and old students of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan." It is started as a publi 
cation which shall keep former students in 
touch with one another and with their alma 
mater. The Record ventures to suggest that 
Northwestern alumni might take from this a 
lesson and do everything they can towards the 
creation of a loyal feeling to their own univer- 

the separate departments into closer relation 
with each other and with the University. 

The President of the University in his last 
report to the board of trustees again advocates 
the desirability of a common commencement, 
and suggests a university statute making this 
obligatory. In support of this he alleged two 
reasons : ( 1 ) that such a commencement 
would be a more important affair than the 
separate commencements 5(2) that it would 
tend to develop a university spirit and bring 

The dental department of the University has 
a feeling that its interests might be better 
brought to the fore in the University if there 
were some one on the board of trustees who 
had a practical acquaintance with the problems 
of an institution which has to give instruction 
in dental science. They feel that the medical, 
and the theological, and the law departments 
are all represented on the board of trustees 
by men who have practical experience in 
these different connections. 

The Record invites correspondence or sug- 
gestion from those interested in the question 
of the relationship of the pharmacy and dent- 
istry to the great classic departments of the 
University. These schools feel that they have 
a distinct work to perform, but hesitate about 
considering themselves as of equal importance 
with the department of medicine, or the 
department of law. 

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